The Functions Of A Natural Knee With Implants

Types Of Knee Implants

Multiple types of knee implants are available for different types of knee replacement, types of patients, and preferences of surgeons. Total knee replacement implants replace your arthritic or damaged knee joint eliminating bearing surfaces that are causing you pain. Based upon your age and lifestyle, there are several design options to choose from that will help you return to an active, enjoyable life.
With a history of excellent surgical technique and outcomes, the focus of new development in this area is on the use of enabling technology to improve preparation and component positioning in knee replacement surgery.
The type implant used may depend on the patient’s bone quality and the health of the ligaments surrounding the knee. Based on the patient’s age and activity level, there are different types of knee implants used in knee replacement surgery.

Fixed Bearing Implants

The polyethylene part of the tibial component is attached firmly to the metal platform. The femoral component moves on the cushion provided by the polyethylene. Fixed bearing implants are generally used in less active and elderly patients.

Mobile Bearing Implants

The polyethylene part of the tibial component can rotate inside the metal part, and therefore provides greater mobility to patients. Mobile bearing implants are designed to bear greater stress compared to fixed bearing implants, and require greater support from the ligaments surrounding the knee. Mobile bearing implants are preferred in generally young and active patients. Medial pivot implants are a type of mobile bearing implants that can bend, rotate, flex and perform all the functions of a natural knee.

Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) Substituting Implants

The posterior cruciate ligament stabilizes the knee against forces that push the tibia towards the femur. PCL substituting implants are used in patients with an injured PCL. The PCL substituting implants are provided with a raised surface on the cushion of the tibial component, which acts as a center post.

Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) Retaining Implants

PCL retaining implants are used in patients who have a healthy posterior cruciate ligament. Unlike PCL substituting designs, PCL retaining implants do not have the center post and cam design. The femoral and tibial components have grooves to hold the posterior cruciate ligament.

Custom Knee Implants

For patients with smaller bone structure, the sizes of the implants required may vary. Gender specific implants and narrow femur implants, can provide better alignment of the bones, and may be used depending on the preference of the orthopedic surgeon.

References

1. http://bonesmart.org/knee/types-of-total-knee-implants/
2. http://washingtonjointinstitute.com/knee-implants/
3. http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=a00221
4. http://www.healthline.com/health/total-knee-replacement- surgery/implant-manufacturers#7

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